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My journey into Nix

As a Windows user for many years, I always liked that there was a way to uninstall any program I installed1. When I moved to Mac OS and installed programs through the App Store, brew, pip, I quickly realized I had no clue how to reliably uninstall them. This made me quite uncomfortable, but I managed to live with it.

A few years later I heard about Nix and how it solved exactly this problem. At a glance it seemed like a good approach, but I never got around to trying it until recently. So far I've been really liking what I've seen and wanted to share what I learned.

What is Nix?

Nix is a cross-platform package manager, working across Linux variants, Mac OS, and Windows.

Nix is also a pure functional package manager, treating package installs like a pure functional data structure. Where most package managers update packages by mutating the install in-place, Nix installs new versions in a separate location and shuffles some "pointers" to point to the new one. The old one continues to exist in its original location - that is, until the garbage collector is run.

Let's see what this actually means.

The Nix store

Nix installs packages in the Nix store, located by default under /nix/store. Everything lives in the Nix store, including Nix itself2. Installing a package foo through Nix installs it into /nix/store/<hash>-foo-<version>. The configuration of foo determines the hash and its version determines, well, the version. This means for any given package, the following are installed in different locations:

  1. Different configuration, different version
  2. Different configuration, same version
  3. Same configuration, different version

Thus, installing different configurations or versions is not destructive

  • the old version continues to exist in a different location. This is what makes Nix purely functional.

If an install has dependencies (e.g. sbt depends on a JDK), those dependencies are installed under their corresponding <hash>-<package>-<version> folder. If two or more packages require the same dependency, that dependency is shared3.

Here are some basic commands to get started with Nix. You may want to run nix-channel --update before to make sure you have the latest set of packages. Nix channels will be discussed later in this post.

+----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | Command | Description | +:=====================+:==========================================================+ | nix-env -qaP [pkg] | Check to see if [pkg] is available through Nix, showing | | | its Nix attribute path if available. | +----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | nix-env -iA [attr] | Install a package by its attribute path [attr]. | +----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | nix-env -u [pkg] | Update [pkg]. We can add --dry-run to see what would | | | be installed without actually updating if we're nervous. | +----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | nix-env -e [pkg] | "Uninstalls" [pkg] - read the next section to learn what | | | actually happens when we uninstall a package. | +----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

Please refer to the Nix manual for more information on these commands.

How Nix manages packages

Given this hash-based install scheme, how do we actually use a package after it's installed? It would be annoying if we had to manually specify the path of the package we wanted, hash and all. Nix's answer to this is user environments, generations, and profiles.

User environments hold symlinks to the installed packages. For instance, running ls -l on my currently active user environment shows something like4:

$ ls -l /nix/store/<hash>-user-environment/bin/
cabal -> /nix/store/<hash>-cabal-install-
ghc-mod -> /nix/store/<hash>-ghc-mod-
ghc-modi -> /nix/store/<hash>-ghc-mod-
hakyll-init -> /nix/store/<hash>-hakyll-
nix-build -> /nix/store/<hash>-nix-1.11.7/bin/nix-build

Every time a package is installed, uninstalled, or updated, a new user environment is created with the corresponding symlinks created, removed, or modified.

User environments are named with a hash followed by -user-environment, located alongside other packages in the Nix store. This becomes important when we look at how removing packages works.

Symlinked to user environments are generations, located outside of the store (but still under /nix) in /nix/var/nix/profiles. Running ls -l shows something like:

$ ls -l /nix/var/nix/profiles/
default -> default-23-link
default-20-link -> /nix/store/<hash>-user-environment
default-21-link -> /nix/store/<hash>-user-environment
default-22-link -> /nix/store/<hash>-user-environment
default-23-link -> /nix/store/<hash>-user-environment

Here the default-N-link symlinks are generations for the default profile. Whenever a user environment is created, a corresponding generation is created that points to it. The profile is then modified to point at this new generation. Since symlinking is an atomic operation, these series of symlinks allow Nix to perform atomic upgrades. If at any point during an install we decide to hit Ctrl+C, our profile is left untouched. The Nix store may contain dirty state leftover from the terminated install, but those will get handled if the install is retried or the garbage collector is run.

We're almost ready to get the packages on our PATH. In each user's home directory there is a ~/.nix-profile symlink which points at their profile (different users may have different profiles). When Nix was installed, it added a statement in the user's bash profile (e.g. ~/.profile) to source a script in this profile which chases the symlinks all the way down and adds the bin to the PATH.

$ cat ~/.profile

if [ -e /.../.nix-profile/etc/profile.d/ ]; then
  . /.../.nix-profile/etc/profile.d/;



Because Nix does not do destructive updates, rollbacks are easy.

$ nix-env --rollback

What is interesting is we can even rollback uninstalls. To Nix, this is no different than rolling back an install. Each install, uninstall, and update creates a new user environment with a new generation. A rollback simply changes the pointer to point at the previous generation.

We can also rollback to a specific generation.

$ nix-env --list-generations
  20   2017-03-17 10:57:28
  21   2017-03-21 21:44:18
  22   2017-03-21 21:46:56
  23   2017-03-26 12:23:13   (current)

$ nix-env --switch-generation 22

The numbers here correspond to the numbers in the symlinks.

Garbage collection

Up to this point we've only seen Nix add packages to the store. Given our machines have limited disk space, at some point Nix needs to actually delete packages from the store.

Nix does this via garbage collection, sharing the same name and purpose as the memory management mechanism. Where in programs garbage collection tracks object references, Nix tracks symlinks into the Nix store.

Recall that generations are symlinks into user environments located in the store, which in turn are symlinks to packages. This means that so long as generations are never deleted, every package is reachable and ineligible for garbage collection (consider what happens if a package was garbage collected and we then switched to a generation that referenced that package).

Therefore in order for packages to be removed, generations need to be deleted. Generation deletion is an explicit step done by the user - Nix will not delete generations by itself.

One way to delete generations is by number.

$ nix-env --delete-generations 20 21
removing generation 20
removing generation 21
$ nix-env --list-generations
  22   2017-03-21 21:46:56
  23   2017-03-26 12:23:13   (current)

To delete all old generations, we can use nix-env --delete-generations old.

Now we have some user environments, and by extension packages, with no references to them. We can see what these are by running nix-store --gc --print-dead. To run the garbage collector and delete them, we run nix-store --gc.

Nix the language

"Nix" refers to the package manager we've been discussing, but also to the related programming language. Packages in Nix are specified by expressions written in Nix the language. These expressions create derivations which tell Nix how to build a package.

At this point I could write a tutorial on the Nix language, but it would just end up being an ad-hoc, informally-written, bug-ridden copy of the Nix manual chapter on expressions and Nix by example: The Nix expression language5. If you're interested in learning about Nix the language, I would recommend reading those.

I have also been told by several people that the Nix pill series is very good. I've yet to read it myself, but it's definitely on my to-read list.


Nixpkgs is the primary way of installing packages through Nix. Nixpkgs is a repository of Nix expressions, each of which tell Nix how to build a package from source. For example, here is the Nix expression for building GNU Hello.

Different operating systems will track Nixpkgs through different channels, which are essentially branches of the repository. I use Mac OS, so my Nix tracks the "unstable" channel which is the master branch after it passes through a periodically running CI.

$ nix-channel --list

While Nix derivations tell Nix how to build a package from source, this doesn't mean we're doomed to say, build Rust from source (which involves multiple bootstraps of the compiler). Whenever we ask Nix to install a package, it will first check an upstream cache for a previously built binary6. If the binary exists it is downloaded to the appropriate location and the install completes. It is only when the binary doesn't exist that the system builds the package from source.

Freedom to explore

The best part of Nix is that it gives us the freedom to explore. With traditional package managers every install and upgrade is risky. With Nix these are guaranteed not to cause problems. If we install something and don't like what we see, a rollback is just a command away. This enables us to discover, experiment, and play with new packages risk-free, a truly liberating feeling.

Further reading

Here are some resources I found valuable when learning Nix.

  1. Nix manual
  2. Purely Functional Linux with NixOS
  3. Nixpkgs manual

I know this isn't entirely true due to files the program may keep in other places, but I didn't know that at the time.


When you install Nix, the installer places the Nix tools in the store as if it were installed by Nix itself. This bootstraps Nix to be managed by Nix, and makes it easy to opt out if you decide Nix isn't for you (just destroy the Nix store).


This behavior matches exactly that of persistent data structures, and is safe for the same reasons.


Here we see Nix tools like nix-build are installed alongside packages.


These pre-built binaries are built by a central Hydra cluster.